USMLE Review- 6

Q- A CT scan of the chest shows a focal, wedge-shaped area of hemorrhage in a segment of the lung. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this finding?

A- Arteriosclerosis

B- Atherosclerosis

C- Embolism

D- Thrombosis

C- Embolism- This is a typical presentation of pulmonary infarction. An embolus from the venous circulation, most commonly arising in large leg veins, has lodged in a peripheral pulmonary arterial branch. Arterial supply to the lung does not provide enough oxygenation to prevent infarction, but does provide blood which results in hemorrhagic area.

Q- Achilles tendon xanthoma is most likely characteristic of which one of the following conditions?

A- Diabetes mellitus

B- Familial hypercholesterolemia

C- Pseudogout

D- Systemic lupus erythematosus

B- Familial hypercholesterolemia- this condition is characterized by slowly growing hard subcutaneous nodule with normal skin due to disturbance in lipid metabolism and high cholesterol levels leading to cholesterol deposits.

Q- Which of the following is the main step in treating alcoholic liver disease?

A- Abstinence

B- Baclofen

C- Disulfiram

D- Naltrexone

A- Abstinence- It is the mainstay of the treatment of alcoholic liver diseases. Drugs are used as supportive.

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