Repeated USMLE Questions Step 1- Review- 106

Q- A patient presents to the clinic for chronic pain management. Which of the following is the most dangerous side effect of fentanyl patches?

A- Allergy

B- Renal failure

C- Respiratory depression

D- Severe hypertension

C- Respiratory depression- Respiratory depression is a serious risk associated with fentanyl and other opioid medications. It occurs when the respiratory centers in the brain are suppressed, leading to slow and shallow breathing. This can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

Q- Which one of the following local anesthetics is characterized by good surface activity and low toxic potentials?

A- Benzocaine

B- Bupivacaine

C- Cocaine

D- Procaine

A- Benzocaine- It is known for its good surface activity and relatively low toxic potential. It is commonly used as a topical anesthetic for relieving pain or discomfort caused by minor skin irritations, sore throat, sunburn, teething, and other minor conditions. Unlike cocaine, it lacks significant systemic toxicity and addictive potential, and compared to bupivacaine and procaine, it is specifically formulated for topical use, minimizing systemic absorption and toxicity.

Q- Amphotericin B is required to be evaluated and reduced if the patient presents with which one of the following side effects?

A- Hepatitis

B- Hypertension

C- Myelosuppression

D- Renal toxicity

D- Renal toxicity- Amphotericin B is well-known for its nephrotoxic effects. Renal toxicity is one of the most significant and common side effects associated with amphotericin B therapy. Therefore, kidney function must be closely monitored during treatment, and dose adjustments or alternative therapies may be necessary if renal toxicity is observed.

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