Repeated USMLE Questions Step 1- Review- 98

Q- A 68-year-old woman is diagnosed with severe urinary tract infection. She has a history of stage 2 chronic kidney disease.

Which of the following antibiotics is the most appropriate for her infection?

A- Amoxicillin

B- Ceftriaxone

C- Levofloxacin

D- Nitrofurantoin

B- Ceftriaxone- It is the most appropriate choice among the options as the patient has a history of renal insufficiency. It has minimal renal excretion, making it less likely to accumulate in the body and cause toxicity in patients with renal impairment. Other antibiotics may have more significant renal excretion or risk of toxicity in patients with kidney disease. Therefore, Ceftriaxone is a safer and more suitable option for this patient.

Q- An 83-year-old man complains of difficulty hearing in both ears over the past three years.

Which of the following conditions is characterized by age-related hearing loss?

A- Meniere’s disease

B- Osteosclerosis

C- Presbycusis

D- Tinnitus

C- Presbycusis- It’s a common condition characterized by gradual, bilateral, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss that typically occurs as people age. Presbycusis is often a result of cumulative exposure to noise, changes in the inner ear structures, and decreased blood supply to the auditory system over time. Meniere’s disease is characterized by episodic vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and a feeling of fullness in the ear. Osteosclerosis is a condition where abnormal bone growth occurs within the middle ear, leading to conductive hearing loss. Tinnitus is a perception of noise or ringing in the ears and can occur with various conditions, including age-related hearing loss, but it is not specific to presbycusis.

Q- The increase in average age and life expectancy in this century compared to the last is largely attributed to the prevention and treatment of which of the following diseases?

A- Atherosclerosis

B- Cancer

C- Emphysema

D- Infection

D- Infection- The prevention and treatment of infections, particularly through advancements in vaccines, antibiotics, and public health measures, have played a significant role in increasing average age and life expectancy. Reductions in infectious diseases have led to lower mortality rates, especially in infants and young children, contributing to longer lifespans across populations.

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