Repeated USMLE Questions Step 1- Review- 85

Q- Which one of the following diuretics may lead to elevated blood calcium level?

A- Acetazolamide

B- Furosemide

C- Hydrochlorothiazide

D- Torsemide

C- Hydrochlorothiazide- It is the only one on the list that may cause hypercalcemia through increased calcium influx across the membrane of distal convoluted tubules of the kidney. This results in hypercalcemia due to increased calcium reabsorption.


Q- Which one of the following medications can be used for both prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis?

A- Cyclosporine

B- Hydrocortisone

C- Medroxyprogesterone acetate

D- Risedronate

D- Risedronate- It is a bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast activity to reduce bone resorption and turnover. Use of the other drugs on the list can lead to osteoporosis.


Q- Which of the following conditions is most likely associated directly with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus?

A- Esophageal webs

B- Hiatal hernia

C- Reflux esophagitis

D- Scleroderma

C- Reflux esophagitis- Adenocarcinoma usually occurs at the lower part of esophagus. Chronic irritation of the esophagus by gastric acid leads to replacement of the normal squamous epithelium of the esophagus by intestinal epithelium. This process results in Barret esophagus and adenocarcinoma.  

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